Surgical weight loss or known as Bariatric Surgery is a broad term for surgical engagement used for assisting obese people to lose weight. There are seven types of bariatric surgery. These are; gastric sleeve, gastric bypass, duodenal switch, LAP band, gastric balloon, V bloc therapy and Aspire assist.
If you have tried everything else to get the perfect shape, then you might be thinking of trying the knife.After all, desperate times call for desperate measures.So, what exactly is it and what does it involve?
These procedures contribute to weight loss in the following ways;
- a) Malabsorption. The procedures modify the alimentary canal to cause an intentional malfunction in the absorption of nutrients and calories.
- b) Restriction. For those who have a big appetite, these procedures may limit the amount of food intake and accommodate by the alimentary canal.
- c) Diversion. Ater swallowing the food, some procedures seek to divert the food from the proper digestion and absorption pathway thus reducing the aggregate amount of absorbed food without reducing the food intake.
Let us delve into these procedures in detail.
1) Gastric sleeve
This is a surgical weight loss procedure that involves resection of part of the stomach (mostly the greater curvature) to form a tube-like structure. Sleeve gastrectomy, therefore, acts in two main ways; reduction of the volume of the stomach this will give you early satiety due to signaling from the stretch receptors on the stomach wall and reduction of ghrelin(a hormone produced by the stomach lining that drives the appetite).
2) Gastric bypass
Roux en Y bypass is what this procedure is known for. It is a surgery that helps you lose weight by changing how the stomach and small intestine handles the food intake. The small intestine is then cut, the distal end anastomosed with the bag created and the proximal end attached more distally to the small gut. This significantly reduces the amount of food ingested, It reduces the surface area for absorption and at the same time allow regular production and flow of bile and other enzymes.
3) Duodenal Switch
In the duodenal switch, a sleeve gastrectomy is first done followed by an incision at the duodenum and the ileum. The distal tube (ileum)will be connected to the proximal end of the duodenum while the midsection tube in closed proximally while the distal end is connected to the ileum. This reduces the intestinal length and maintains bile flow.
4) LAP band
The silicone band will be placed on the stomach to restrict the amount of food to be accommodated. The procedure is done laparoscopically and causes weight loss through restriction of food.
5) Gastric balloon
Gastric balloon is placed into the stomach and once you are comfortable the procedure can begin. The balloon will occupy a large volume inside the stomach and thus be limiting the amount of food ingested hence bringing about weight loss.
6) V bloc therapy
V bloc therapy is by far the safest weight loss surgery with a complication of only 3.7%. It works by blocking the vagus nerve which is responsible for sending hunger signals to the brain. This device empowers you to eat less, makes healthier choices and lose weight.
7) Aspire assist
This procedure is a laparoscopic procedure placing a tube through the skin and into the stomach. This pipe will enable using a pump, drain the food content from your stomach after you’ve had your fill. This way you can lose weight and eat to your satisfaction.
Benefits of weight loss surgery
Surgical weight loss offers a wide range of benefits relating to weight loss, here are some list:
- Reduced risk of type two diabetes mellitus
- Improved body image and self-esteem
- Improved cardiovascular wealth
- Reduced risk of back pain
- Improved fertility and libido
Medical doctors or surgeons must discuss before signing the consent form for the possible surgical weight loss risk. These risks vary from procedure to another. These include;
- Excessive bleeding especially the invasive procedures
- Anastomotic leaks
- Incision site infection
- Adverse reaction to anesthesia
- Wound dehiscence and incisional hernias
- Dumping syndrome
- Intestinal Obstruction
- Stomach perforation
Surgical weight loss is an excellent weight loss plan that doesn’t involve dieting and exercise. These procedures are ideal for the morbidly obese who cannot exercise of those who are overweight and cannot ambulate. So, before settling for any procedure, it is advisable to do a proper extensive discussion.
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